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Knowledge about electronic components and chips?

【概要描述】Chip If the central processing unit CPU is likened to the heart of the entire computer system, then the chipset on the motherboard is the torso of the entire body. For the motherboard, the chipset almost determines the function of the motherboard, which in turn affects the performance of the entire computer system. The chipset is the soul of the motherboard. Chipset is the core component of the motherboard. According to the different arrangement positions on the motherboard, it is usually divided into a north bridge chip and a south bridge chip. The North Bridge chip provides support for CPU type and main frequency, memory type and maximum capacity, ISA/PCI/AGP slot, ECC error correction, etc. The South Bridge chip provides support for KBC (Keyboard Controller), RTC (Real Time Clock Controller), USB (Universal Serial Bus), Ultra DMA/33(66) EIDE data transmission and ACPI (Advanced Energy Management), etc. . Among them, the north bridge chip plays a dominant role, also known as the host bridge (Host Bridge). The identification of the chipset is also very easy. Taking the Intel 440BX chipset as an example, its north bridge chip is the Intel 82443BX chip, which is usually located near the CPU socket on the motherboard. heat sink. The South Bridge chip is located near the ISA and PCI slots, and the name of the chip is Intel 82371EB. The arrangement of other chipsets is basically the same. For different chipsets, there are also gaps in performance. In addition to the most common north-south bridge junction

Knowledge about electronic components and chips?

【概要描述】Chip If the central processing unit CPU is likened to the heart of the entire computer system, then the chipset on the motherboard is the torso of the entire body. For the motherboard, the chipset almost determines the function of the motherboard, which in turn affects the performance of the entire computer system. The chipset is the soul of the motherboard. Chipset is the core component of the motherboard. According to the different arrangement positions on the motherboard, it is usually divided into a north bridge chip and a south bridge chip. The North Bridge chip provides support for CPU type and main frequency, memory type and maximum capacity, ISA/PCI/AGP slot, ECC error correction, etc. The South Bridge chip provides support for KBC (Keyboard Controller), RTC (Real Time Clock Controller), USB (Universal Serial Bus), Ultra DMA/33(66) EIDE data transmission and ACPI (Advanced Energy Management), etc. . Among them, the north bridge chip plays a dominant role, also known as the host bridge (Host Bridge). The identification of the chipset is also very easy. Taking the Intel 440BX chipset as an example, its north bridge chip is the Intel 82443BX chip, which is usually located near the CPU socket on the motherboard. heat sink. The South Bridge chip is located near the ISA and PCI slots, and the name of the chip is Intel 82371EB. The arrangement of other chipsets is basically the same. For different chipsets, there are also gaps in performance. In addition to the most common north-south bridge junction

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  • 发布时间:2020-03-25 18:17
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Chip If the central processing unit CPU is likened to the heart of the entire computer system, then the chipset on the motherboard is the torso of the entire body. For the motherboard, the chipset almost determines the function of the motherboard, which in turn affects the performance of the entire computer system. The chipset is the soul of the motherboard. Chipset is the core component of the motherboard. According to the different arrangement positions on the motherboard, it is usually divided into a north bridge chip and a south bridge chip. The North Bridge chip provides support for CPU type and main frequency, memory type and maximum capacity, ISA/PCI/AGP slot, ECC error correction, etc. The South Bridge chip provides support for KBC (Keyboard Controller), RTC (Real Time Clock Controller), USB (Universal Serial Bus), Ultra DMA/33(66) EIDE data transmission and ACPI (Advanced Energy Management), etc. . Among them, the north bridge chip plays a dominant role, also known as the host bridge (Host Bridge). The identification of the chipset is also very easy. Taking the Intel 440BX chipset as an example, its north bridge chip is the Intel 82443BX chip, which is usually located near the CPU socket on the motherboard. heat sink. The South Bridge chip is located near the ISA and PCI slots, and the name of the chip is Intel 82371EB. The arrangement of other chipsets is basically the same. For different chipsets, there are also gaps in performance. In addition to the most common north-south bridge structure, the current chipset is developing towards a more advanced accelerated hub architecture. Intel's 8xx series chipset is the representative of this type of chipset. It combines some subsystems such as IDE interface, audio, MODEM and USB is directly connected to the main chip, which can provide twice the bandwidth of the PCI bus, reaching 266MB/s; in addition, SiS635/SiS735 of SiS Technology is also a newcomer to this type of chipset. In addition to supporting the latest DDR266, DDR200 and PC133 SDRAM specifications, it also supports quad-speed AGP graphics card interface and Fast Write function, IDE ATA33/66/100, and built-in 3D stereo sound, high-speed data transmission function including 56K data communication (Modem), high-speed Ethernet network transmission (Fast Ethernet), 1M/10M home network (Home PNA) and so on. Chip application Like PCR technology, chip technology has been developed and will be developed in a wide range of applications. The first application area of ​​biochips is the detection of gene expression. However, the strategy of placing biomolecules on a chip in an orderly manner to detect biochemical samples has a wide range of applications. In addition to gene expression analysis, hybridization-based analysis has been used for gene mutation detection, polymorphism analysis, and gene mapping. , evolution research and other applications, microarray analysis can also be used to detect the binding of proteins to nucleic acids, small molecules and other proteins, but the applications in these fields are still to be developed. Hybridization analysis of genomic DNA can detect single base changes, deletions and insertions in the coding and non-coding regions of DNA. DNA hybridization analysis can also be used to quantify DNA, which is important for detecting gene copy numbers and chromosome ploidy. of. Samples for DNA analysis can be obtained from total genomic DNA or cloned fragments, and fluorescently labeled DNA samples can be obtained by enzymatically catalyzed incorporation of fluorescent nucleotides, or by PCR amplification with fluorescently labeled primers. RNA transcribed from DNA can be used to detect cloned DNA fragments, and RNA probes are often obtained from cloned DNA, using RNA polymerase to incorporate fluorescent nucleotides. Hybridization analysis of RNA can detect whether a gene is expressed in a sample, and at what level. In gene expression detection applications, fluorescently labeled probes are often used to catalyze the synthesis of RNA from cDNA by reverse transcriptase, and fluorescently labeled nucleotides are incorporated in this process. RNA probes for detecting gene expression can also be obtained by linear amplification of cloned cDNA by RNA polymerase. In the hybridization experiments of cDNA chips, the hybridization temperature is sufficient to remove the secondary structure in DNA, and the mixture of intact single-stranded molecules (300-3000nt) can provide a strong hybridization signal. For oligonucleotide chips, the hybridization temperature is usually lower, and strong hybridization usually requires the molecules in the probe mixture to be reduced to shorter fragments (50-100nt), and the size of the nucleotide can be changed by chemical and enzymatic methods. . Unlike DNA and RNA analysis, there are still many difficulties to be overcome in the study of protein function using biochips. One of the difficulties is that many protein-protein interactions occur on the surface of folded polypeptides with three-dimensional structures, unlike nucleic acid hybridization reactions. Only occurs between linear sequences. The need for folded proteins in chip analysis is still difficult to achieve for the following reasons: First, the method used in chip preparation must still maintain the sensitive folding properties of proteins, while all chemical reagents, heat treatment, drying, etc. Both will affect the properties of proteins on the chip; second, the interaction between folded proteins is more dependent on sequence, and sequence dependence complicates reaction kinetics and quantitative analysis; third, high-quality fluorescently labeled proteins The preparation of probes remains to be further studied. These reasons, along with other problems, have slowed research on protein chip assays. Since the concept of DNA chip was proposed by Fodor et al. [1] in 1991, the biochip technology represented by DNA chip has developed rapidly in recent years [2-6], and a variety of chips with different functions have come out. Some have begun to play an important role in life science research. The so-called biochip is a device that is used in the field of life science and medicine to function similar to a computer chip. Microscale technology, which transplants many discontinuous processes in life sciences, such as sample preparation, chemical reaction and detection, into chips and makes them continuous and miniaturized, which is different from the miniaturization of several house-sized discrete components to a computer. Now only book-sized notebook computers have the same effect. This kind of biological chip developed based on micro-processing technology can integrate thousands or even hundreds of thousands of life information on a small chip. Compared with traditional instruments, biochemical analyzers for various purposes made with these biochips have the advantages of small size, light weight, low cost, easy portability, anti-pollution, analysis process automation, and analysis speed. It has many advantages such as fast, less samples and reagents required. At present, biochips are no longer limited to applications such as gene sequence determination and functional analysis. A number of newly derived technologies include: chip immunoassay technology [7], chip nucleic acid amplification Technology [8-10], sperm selection on chip and in vitro fertilization technology [11, 12], chip cell analysis technology [13] and high-throughput drug screening technology using chip as a platform [14], etc. The emergence of such instruments will Bring a revolution to life science research, disease diagnosis and treatment, new drug development, biological weapons warfare, forensic identification, food hygiene supervision, aerospace and other fields. Therefore, US President Clinton pointed out in his State of the Union address in January 1998 : "In the next 12 years, the gene chip will guide the maze of disease prevention in our life". In addition, Fortune [15], an authoritative publication in the American business circle, made the following exposition: "Microprocessors will make our economy in this century. A fundamental change in structure has brought great wealth to mankind and changed our way of life. However, the impact of biochips on mankind may be even greater, and it may fundamentally change the behavior of medicine and our quality of life , thus changing the face of the world”. Due to the rapid development of biochip technology, the American Association for the Advancement of Science named biochips as one of the top ten scientific and technological breakthroughs in 1998 at the end of 1998 [16]. It will bring a revolution in life science and medical research in the next century, and has become a hot spot of research and research in the academic and industrial circles of various countries. Research status of biochips Since the 1950s and 1960s, the development of microelectronics technology The rapid development has also made great progress in related fields, and some new research directions have emerged, such as micro-electromechanical systems, micro-optical devices, micro-analysis systems, etc. These technologies are used in biology, chemistry and It has also been widely used in medicine and other fields, and various biosensors and micro-analytical instruments have appeared one after another, such as chip capillary electrophoresis, gas sensors and instruments for observing the growth of single neuron cells, etc. In 1991, Fodor of Affymax Company led The group made the first report on the DNA chip prepared by in situ synthesis [1]. They used the combination of photolithography technology and photochemical synthesis technology to make a microarray chip for detecting polypeptides and oligonucleotides. Using this method The produced DNA chip can be used for pharmacogenomics research and gene duplication sequencing. This breakthrough progress has made biochip technology begin to receive attention worldwide. With the progress of various technologies in recent years, the application scope of biochip Continuing to expand, scientists have used various micromachining technologies in the microelectronics industry and other related industries to process and produce various biochips on substrates such as silicon, glass, and plastic. The United States relies on its strong scientific and technological capabilities and economic strength. In this field In the research and development of DNA chips, dozens of biochip companies have been established successively, and nearly 20 kinds of biochips have been developed, some of which have been put into research applications. In the process of DNA chip research, many companies have developed their own characteristics. Affymetrix, the earliest company in this field, has developed a variety of gene chips, some of which have been put into commercial applications, such as chips used to detect HIV gene and p53 tumor gene mutations, as well as cells used to study genetic changes in drug metabolism Pigment p450 chip. The thin film sequencing chip developed by Hyseq does not use fluorescent labeling on DNA fragments of unknown sequence, but labeling probes with known sequences, and use different probes each time to match the unknown sequence. The DNA fragments were hybridized, and the results of the hybridization were obtained by detecting fluorescence. Finally, the results of the experiments were processed by computer to combine the sequences of the DNA fragments to be tested. Synteni (now acquired by Incyte Pharmaceutical) studied a kind of DNA using glass as a carrier. The chip, using two different fluorescent markers, can simultaneously detect the expression of normal messenger RNA and messenger RNA affected by diseases or drugs. Nanogen uses electric fields to actively manipulate DNA on the chip The fragments are hybridized, making the system's reaction speed faster than the general passive detection of random diffusion of DNA to find immobilized hybridization probes, so that the detection time can be reduced to tens or hundreds of percent. Clinical Micro Sensors (CMS) Company A non-fluorescent detection chip is being developed that uses electrical signals to determine whether there is a mismatch in DNA hybridization. In addition to the above companies, some famous universities in the United States such as Stanford University, University of Pennsylvania, University of California, Berkeley, MIT, Some universities and national laboratories such as Oak Ridge National Laboratory are also conducting research on biochips. Companies and universities in some European countries have also set foot in this field and Obvious achievements have been made, and several companies in Japan have reported their research results. Recently, institutions such as Tsinghua University, Fudan University, Southeast University, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, and Chinese Academy of Sciences in my country have also started research work in this area. It is believed that my country will also have a place in this field in the near future.

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